In 1847 William Samuel Henson patented the "comb tooth guard or protector" for razors then the T-handled razor. T-handled safety razors did not really go into production until the 1880s. These had a wedge shaped resharpenable blade. Disposable blades are credited to King Camp Gillette who applied for the patent in 1901.
William Samuel Henson was quite the SteamPunk.
He invented a number of things including a light weight steam engine and the Henson Aerial Steam Carriage in 1842 (pictured above) which appears to have had adequate control surfaces and power to have actually flown if he could have generated the investments to build one of these 150' wingspanned aircraft.
The 1847 T-handled Henson safety razor.
GEM Razors have been a competitor of Gillette for over a century. They produced a single edge blade holding safety razor similar to the earlier STAR razors which they merged with.
DO NOT attempt to use the hardware store blades in these! They are too dull and will rip your face up. On the other hand the used GEM blades are still sharper than the hardware look alike blades and good for crafts.
I have collected a variety of these antique razors and these GEMs run from very smooth to too aggressive but are overall pretty good shaves and travel well.