As seen on the recent maps posted the world changed quite a lot after the American Civil War. This is designed to give an idea what those factions are made of and stand for.
The Grand Republic of America- In many ways this version is similar to the "real" United States except that it's expansion has been stopped by other nations forming. The Grand Republic is known though for it's harsh laws for the misuse of alchemy or advanced sciences. Even with these laws America is still a military powerhouse from its use of these fields to create powerful weapons.
The Confederate States of America mirrors the Grand Republic in many ways. The most notable difference is the legalization of slavery. The laws concerning slavery have become stricter though to make owners more responsible for the health, education, and well being of slaves. Any owner found to be mistreating slaves will have them taken away and be forced to free them as well as pay damages. The largest economic resource of the nation is still the production of cotton and rice.
The Independent Republic of Texas formed when Texas seceded from both the Grand Republic and the Confederacy. Feeling both sides were wrong it formed it's own government in 1869. It also absorbed most of the great plains and New Mexico as well. By the end of the war Texas had already established itself and it's infrastructure. Texas has since become a world power with the discovery of oil throughout most of it's land and is refining it into powerful fuels to operate their fleet of air ships.
The New Mayan Empire- During the civil war to the north the descendants of the defeated Mayans rose up and rebelled from Mexico. Over the course of 5 years they had managed to conquer half of Mexico, as well as up into California, Arizona, and Utah. Though a young nation they have managed to quickly make themselves a formidable power in the world. Not long after the formation of the Empire and the anointing of the first emperor ancient texts from the Mayans were uncovered in a reclaimed temple with lost secret technologies, alchemical formulas, and astrological data used in many ways.
The Mountain Confederation- This is a unique nation in North America. Many miners and loggers had filled this region of the country before the war. So too did many deposed native american tribes. When the war broke out between the North and South the two factions who had been fighting amongst themselves came together and worked out a treaty. By the end of the war they had integrated themselves and built the Confederation. They control the largest mines and log camps in North America. Unlike most of the world they are keeping a simpler view on life and rarely bring in much new technology nor establish any large cities other than their primary market cities.
Mexico- is much the same as it would have been historically minus a continual battle with the New Mayan Empire, who seeks total control of the country to return to their historically significant sites throughout the land. The one advantage that keeps them from being overrun is their support from other nations keeping them equipped with modern technology for the time.
Nicaragua- is one of the few nations whose expansion throughout the region was influenced less by war and more by economics. The entire region was known for it's production of high end tobaccos but Nicaragua had developed the best trade agreements. Over the span of a decade several other countries merged themselves into Nicaragua. The end result is a nation with a near stranglehold on the tobacco industry.
Cuba- Another nation inspired by economics but also by war. The islands throughout the gulf were being used as strike points, pirate hide outs, and bases by the larger countries in the west. Cuba, seeing that if nothing was done all the islands in the gulf would be little more than naval bases for other countries, used it's influence as the primary slave market in the region to begin gathering other islands under it's banner. It also gathered a powerful navy through black market deals. In the end it gathered all of the islands in the gulf together as one nation. Now all shipping through the gulf is regulated, and taxed, by Cuba.
Colombia Confederation- The confederation was formed by the despotic government of Colombia. Instead of conquering through military might or economic stability the High Chancellor of Colombia used his country's vast narcotic resources. After taking control of all the illegal narcotic plantations in his country he weaponized many of the drugs. Once done he would send in fast flying airships over a region spraying powder down. Within hours anyone who breathed the powder would find themselves hallucinating and suffering from a horrid illness. After several days the High Chancellor would approach the remaining officials of the land and offer to cure the illness but only if the area affected was ceded to his control. Only recent advancements in airships from other nations has stopped this ruthless expansion.
Peru- The nation of Peru expanded to it's current size by being approached by the country of Bolivia and asked if they wished to merge. Separate the two nations were financially and militarily competent enough but with the threat of the Galician Empire spreading on the continent it was decided a more affluent nation would be better suited to keep itself free. The gambit has worked well as the Empire has stopped any attempt to conquer either nation. With the success of the effort between Peru and Bolivia soon after Ecuador petitioned and joined the nation.
Chile- This country has remain untouched in size and area but it's technology with building airships is unsurpassed. Though they were first created elsewhere the scientists of Chile seemed to have a natural knack for improving them. They are now have one of the greatest air fleets on the planet. Though the nation is still simply called Chile most of the world calls them the Chilean Airlords. Their fleet is one of the biggest deterents to the expansion of the Galician Empire.
Argentina Imperium- In truth Argentina is no more an imperium than it was before. It took the name in hopes that during the turmoil that was erupting across the continent it would be able to expand it's borders. In the end the only change was the official name of the nation. Though it has developed a significant navy and has taken full control of the Strait of the Magellan, making sure that any ship traveling through the waters pays a nominal charge.
Suriname Guinea- This country is another will collaborative effort to avoid being taken over by the Galician Empire. Unfortunately it is a struggling effort as each year it looses a bit more ground. Though the Empire has not taken any land as of yet it is keeping it effectively blockaded. Warnings that any full invasion will result in the other South American nations declaring war on the Empire is all that has kept this nation on the map.
The Galician Empire- This empire, though the largest force in South America, did not originate in that continent. In the mid 1860s the Galicia region of Spain attempted to secede from Spain. The result was a quick, but brutal, civil war. During this expected war the leaders of the uprising sold every item of value they could steal from the region. Using this money they slipped away on an airship to Brazil. Once there they quickly found a small town and began using their money to purchase more resources. By 1872 they had amassed a stockpile of weapons and soldiers strategically placed throughout the country. In a lightning fast move they conquered Brazil within a matter of months. Over the next two years the Galician's finished conquering the rest of Brazil and sent divisions into Uraguay. With the succesful invasion of that southern country the Galician's renamed the, now larger, nation the Galician Empire. It wasn't long before they began their northern march. Only after conquering Venezuela did the other nations of the continent level a threat of all out war against the Empire unless it ceased it's invasions. The armies of the Empire are a formidable threat regardless as they have some of the latest technologies as well as the skills of the native Amazonians who have happily joined with the Empire.
Though it's borders are well guarded by the armies the interior rain forest is near impassable without finding oneself under threat from the natives who are supported by the Empire's own resources as well. It is this combination of forces that have made the Galician Empire one of the most feared nations in the western hemisphere.